You can build a form with different field types and then present it to the general public for both members and non-members to complete. As information is entered into the form, this data is stored and can later be exported to a CSV or Excel file.
In a member's profile there is a Forms tab where an Admin can access all of the forms that a member has completed. This requires your members to be logged in when completing the forms with the "Force Member Login" option turned on.
CAPTCHA is available to stop automated bot submissions.